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Diseases/Disorders/Syndromes: Scientific Research & Clinical Trials


Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.

The abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602 reduces nociception in a rat model of acute arthritis via the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55.

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain.

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.

Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.


Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma

Endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit neurogenic inflammations in guinea pig airways.

Allergen challenge increases anandamide in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients with allergic asthma.

Activation of cannabinoid receptors prevents antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in guinea pigs.

The role of cannabinoids in inflammatory modulation of allergic respiratory disorders, inflammatory pain and ischemic stroke.

Digestive Issues: Colitis & Chrohn's

Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.

Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis.

The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis.

Topical and systemic cannabidiol improves trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis in mice.

Cannabinoids and the gut: new developments and emerging concepts.

Endocannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract.

Manipulation of the Endocannabinoid System in Colitis: A Comprehensive Review.

Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn’s disease.

Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: a brief overview.


Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrite.

Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study.

Heart Disease

Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?

Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion.

Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

17 Cannabidiol as an anti-arrhythmic, the role of the CB1 receptors

The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors.

Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

Endocannabinoids acting at cannabinoid-1 receptors regulate cardiovascular function in hypertension.

Oleamide: a fatty acid amide signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system?

Cannabidiol Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Modulating Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis.

Huntingtons Disease

Cannabinoids: novel medicines for the treatment of Huntington’s disease.

Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease.

Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids is neuroprotective in malonate-lesioned rats, an inflammatory model of Huntington’s disease: role of CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington’s disease.

Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol.

Effects of a Sativex-Like Combination of Phytocannabinoids on Disease Progression in R6/2 Mice, an Experimental Model of Huntington’s Disease.

Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington’s disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs.

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease

Cannabinoids and the gut: new developments and emerging concepts.

Endocannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract.

Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: animal and human studies.

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Brain-Gut Axis.

Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases

Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation.

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?

Cannabinoids and GI Disorders: Endogenous and Exogenous.

Kidney Disease

Cannabidiol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death.

Liver Disease

Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats.

The endocannabinoid system and liver diseases.

Cannabidiol causes activated hepatic stellate cell death through a mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.

Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death.

Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in amelioration of experimental autoimmune hepatitis following activation of TRPV1 receptors by cannabidiol

Potential of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation.

Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice.


Effects of anandamide in migraine: data from an animal model.

The endocannabinoid system and migraine.

Variations in the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene predispose to migraine.

Cannabinoids suitable for migraine prevention

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?

Mood Disorders

Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.

The endocannabinoid system and the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

The endocannabinoid system in the regulation of emotions throughout lifespan: a discussion on therapeutic perspectives.

Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on regional cerebral blood flow.

The endocannabinoid system and psychiatric disorders.

Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders.

Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Beyond the CB1 Receptor: Is Cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation?

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Psychosis.


Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders.

Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?

Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?

Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder.

Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders.

Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection.

Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.

Short-term effects of cannabidiol after global hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets.

Cannabidiol Activates Neuronal Precursor Genes in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke.

Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol.

Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via pentose-phosphate pathway in hippocampal neurons.

Modulation of Astrocyte Activity by Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid.


Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour

Osteoprosis/Bone Health

Cannabidiol, a Major Non‐Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 protects against age-related osteoporosis by regulating osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in marrow stromal cells.

Cannabinoid receptors as target for treatment of osteoporosis: a tale of two therapies.

Cannabinoids and bone: friend or foe?

The endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system: a new potential target for osteoporosis therapy.

Cannabinoids and the skeleton: from marijuana to reversal of bone loss

The endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system in human osteoclasts: possible involvement in bone formation and resorption.

Endocannabinoids and the regulation of bone metabolism.

Natural products as alternative treatments for metabolic bone disorders and for maintenance of bone health.

Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass.

Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass.

Regulation of bone mass, bone loss and osteoclast activity by cannabinoid receptors.

Skeletal lipidomics: regulation of bone metabolism by fatty acid amide family.

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may mutually benefit both obesity and osteoporosis.

Parkinsons Disease

Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial.

Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties.

Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series.

Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease.

Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease.

Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ⁹-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease.

Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol.

Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) Receptors Activation Protects against Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation Associated Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone Model of Parkinson’s Disease.

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease.

Prion/Mad Cow Disease

Nonpsychoactive cannabidiol prevents prion accumulation and protects neurons against prion toxicity.

Cannabidiol: a prion therapy for mice?


Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress

Sleep Disorder

Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats.

Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report.

Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability.

Endocannabinoid modulation of cortical up-states and NREM sleep.

Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats.

The nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent cannabidiol is a wake-inducing agent.

Spinal Cord Injury

Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury.

Stroke/Traumatic Brain Injury

Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction via a serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-dependent mechanism.

Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function.

Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance.

Protective effects of cannabidiol against hippocampal cell death and cognitive impairment induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice.

Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke.