Enjoy 20% Off Our Calming Products | Code: Calm20

Save MORE On Subscription Orders

Free Fedex 2-DAY Shipping Orders $100+

Anatomy of Dogs and Cats: the Endocannabinoid System

Reading TimeReading Time:

Anatomy of Dogs and Cats: the Endocannabinoid System

Puppies, kittens, cats, and dogs are some of mankind’s non-human best friends. No matter their age, every cat and dog breed is remarkable. Some have sleek fur and multicolored coats, while others are spotted and furry beyond belief. But have you ever wondered about the internal anatomy of your cherished pets? This may or may not have come as a shock to you, but the composition of cat and dog organs are quite similar to a human. Though we physically look nothing like our favorite cats and dogs, our bodies are so much more similar to theirs than you might think.

From an internal viewpoint, humans and domesticated animals are very similar, and therefore, the collective responses to tetrahydrocannabinol THC, CBD, and cannabis-based products are nearly identical. Pets and people alike can sometimes exhibit increased levels of anxiety and paranoia when THC heavy cannabis products are involved. In contrast, cannabidiol (CBD) and hemp-based products have very healing and calming effects.

The CBD treats unique to the dog industry is slowly but surely becoming more widespread now than ever. However, many dogs and cat owners are hesitant to purchase treats that contain CBD or hemp for their pets. The common misunderstanding is that anything intended for pets and derived from the cannabis plant will have abnormally euphoric and psychoactive effects on dogs and cats.

This assumption makes sense, considering the fact that people experience a feeling of being high with weed in their systems. There’s more to the story though.

hemp plant

CBD oils and treats specifically made for dogs and cats do not produce the feeling of being high because they contain little to no THC. They are created using CBD oils and hemp, neither of which cause the psychoactive responses that a human is exposed to after smoking weed or eating THC in the form of edibles.

CBD is sometimes derived from the cannabis plant, so there is the potential that CBD for dogs and CBD for cats contain a very minimal amount of THC. Don’t worry, though. The levels of THC in CBD, if any, are incredibly minor. It is in no way potent enough to cause any changes in psychological functioning.

Are you wondering how your pet’s body processes CBD and hemp? We have you covered! First, we will dive into the endocannabinoid system and explain how it relates to CBD for pets. From there, we’ll go in-depth about the effects of CBD for dogs and CBD for cats.

What is the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)?

the Endocannabinoid System | Innovet Pet

As you might suspect by the name, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is specifically designed to process cannabis-based products and the cannabinoid compounds found in them. In fact, this system was named with the word cannabis in mind.

First and foremost, the endocannabinoid system of dogs and cats works to regulate an incredibly wide array of bodily functions.

Some examples of the functions that the endocannabinoid system is responsible for include…

  • Balance and coordination
  • Muscle movement
  • Reproductive systems
  • Activation and suppression of appetite
  • Digestive tract
  • Memory and recollection abilities
  • Heart rate and blood pressure
  • Ability to feel pain and pleasure
  • Mood regulation and stability
  • Reproductive processes in males and females
  • Development of the brain
  • Internal clock

The endocannabinoid system is comprised of a few other systems in the body, all of which come together to create an even larger collective system. The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, both of which are part of the endocannabinoid system.

The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous is quite literally everything else. From the somatic nervous system and its many neurons to the autonomic nervous system and its regulation of bodily responses, the peripheral nervous system is very important in overall functionality.

Another one of the components of the endocannabinoid system is the gastrointestinal tract. This is the part of the body responsible for digestion and nutrient extraction. Food is broken down and either used as energy or stored as excess fat, all thanks to the gastrointestinal tract.

The one other part of the endocannabinoid system is the immune system, which is essentially the body’s defense against suspicious or unusual agents. When unrecognizable substances enter the body, the immune system protects against the so-called invasion and fights off the potentially dangerous materials.

Even if the cannabinoid system only partially malfunctions, then your pet can still face a wealth of discomfort or secondhand symptoms. In order to avoid these concerning ailments, consider introducing your cat or dog to CBD oils specifically designed for pets. Have you ever looked into the effects of CBD oils on pets?

The endocannabinoid system is alive and well when cannabinoids enter the body of cats and dogs, but what is the interaction between CBD and this intricate system? We’re here to shed light on CBD oils for pets in the hopes that knowing more about CBD oils will make you more inclined to turn to alternative and natural ways of treating various symptoms your pet experiences.

The Relationship Between the Endocannabinoid System and The Cannabis Plant

Now that we have reviewed the cannabinoid system, let’s talk about how it relates to CBD oil for pets, as well as how this system interacts with CBD. When pets ingest CBD oils, extracts of any strain, or treats made with cannabis-based ingredients, the endocannabinoid system jumps into action to process the cannabis. Once the endocannabinoid system is activated, the effects of CBD and hemp begin to display themselves.

Endocannabinoid Systems of Cats and Dogs: Cannabinoids and Their Receptors

Cannabinoids influence certain parts of your pet’s brain. From the brainstem on up towards the brain, cannabinoids affect all parts of the central nervous system. The brain of cats, dogs, and even humans is categorized into three primary regions. From the posterior to the anterior, these sections are the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain.

From there, the brain is further divided into four lobes: occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal.

There are many other distinct parts of the brain, including...

  • Brainstem
  • Cerebellum
  • Pineal gland
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Hippocampus
  • Amygdala
  • Pituitary gland
  • Cerebral cortex

Cannabinoids alter the functioning of many parts of the brain. These areas include the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum.

Within the endocannabinoid system exist two different cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2 receptors. Endocannabinoid receptors are located on cells, and when activated, send out signaling messages for the cell to carry out. The CB1 receptors are mostly found within the primary nervous system.

CB1 And CB2 Receptors

CB1 receptors are located in and around the spinal cord and brain of your pets.

As such, the CB1 receptors play a large role in assisting with regulation. From storing memories and suppressing hunger to expressing moods and registering an appetite, CB1 receptors are necessary to the overall functioning of your cats and dogs.

In contrast, the CB2 receptors are primarily situated in the immune system, though there are some located in the nervous system as well. Compared to the CB1 receptors, the CB2 cannabinoid receptors are the endocannabinoid receptors more involved in processing CBD oils. When your cats and dogs digest products that contain even a small trace amount of CBD, the CB2 cannabinoid receptors are activated. They work hard to bring your pet’s body to a place of calmness and serenity.

When CB2 cannabinoid receptors bind to CBD, the two substances interact in a way that causes tranquility and relaxation in the body of your pet. CBD oils for pets are created with CB2 receptors in mind. When they come together, pain relief is possible, as are the many other benefits, positive side effects of CBD for cats and dogs.

Once CB2 cannabinoid receptors bind to the CBD molecules, the functioning of your pet’s immune system is immediately improved. If your pet is experiencing inflammation as well, you will notice a significant decline in symptoms and your pet will become more physically able and active, just like old times. Without CB2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system, CBD oils for pets would not be nearly as effective, if at all.

THC And The Endocannabinoid System

While THC, CBD, and several other cannabinoids found in cannabis interact with CB1 receptors, there is only one cannabinoid that is pretty much responsible for the high we associate with marijuana, and that is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). By attaching to CB1 receptors in a way our endocannabinoids can't, marijuana overstimulates the ECS. Now, this isn't always a bad thing, as high-THC products can significantly reduce pain and seizures.

However, THC comes with a big downside. Well for some it does, for others, not so much, and that is the high and its negative effects on overstimulating the ECS. Which can leave permanent damage on adolescent brains. As well, it's inappropriate for our pets because they can't understand what's going on with high-THC products. In fact, a lot of people don't handle high-THC well themselves, especially, when they are given it without knowing.

And while high-THC products are just not a good idea for our pets because they can't understand the high, THC can also affect other animals to a greater degree than they can a human. While it is pretty much impossible for us to ingest enough THC to kill us - we would likely fall asleep long before we could get close enough - the same is not true for some other animals. In particular, our dogs can die from THC. And while they would have to consume a lot still, this is much easier for a puppy or small dog to do.

While rare for a dog to die from overconsuming THC, dogs can see severe reactions to THC from an overdose at a much lower dose. This makes it so important that you never give your dog a high-THC or marijuana product. And we know that there many 1:1 THC to CBD cannabis items, and if your dog isn't seeing their pain or anxiety reduced with CBD, they can seem enticing. Unfortunately, right now, they are off-limits until we have more research available. So, for now, just stick with cannabidiol (CBD) products to be on the safe side. As well, CBD is often considered a better alternative for help with anxiety and inflammation anyways.

What are Endocannabinoids?

Within the endocannabinoid system are actual endogenous cannabinoids, called endocannabinoids. The entire system is named for these endocannabinoids because they are so important in the process of breaking down CBD in the body and having its properties unfold.

As part of the central nervous system and the peripheral system, endocannabinoids are made up of lipids. They are neurotransmitters, meaning that they transfer chemicals to and around the brain of your pets. Endocannabinoids work in tandem with the cannabinoid receptors, both CB1 and CB2. Essentially, endocannabinoids are necessary for cannabinoid receptors to bind to CBD molecules and release the calming effects so unique to CBD oil and products.

There are two types of endocannabinoids: anandamide and 2-AG. As the first known endocannabinoid, anandamide plays a crucial role in the functional abilities of CB1 and CB2 receptors. As you know, CB1 and CB2 receptors are cannabinoids that bind to CBD molecules. Without these receptors, CBD would not have anything to attach to and therefore its effects would not be expressed. Without active expression, CBD would not be an effective treatment for pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety, or any of its other healing abilities.

The other type of endocannabinoids is called 2-AG, which is short for 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Similar to anandamide, 2-AG endocannabinoids also engage with the two types of cannabinoid receptors, though 2-AG’s interactions with CB1 receptors along with CB2 cannabinoid receptors are very different than the interactions that cannabinoid receptors share with anandamide. In particular, anandamide cannot fully unleash the effects of CBD on its own, so 2-AG taps into CBD molecules in a way that anandamide cannot. The two primary types of endocannabinoids work together to express CBD in full.

Now that you know about the way CBD oils and the endocannabinoid system - thru CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors - interact with each other, let’s dive into CBD and its properties.

Everything You Need to Know About CBD for Pets

There is a plethora of information online about CBD for pets. The more research you perform about the effects of CBD for cats and CBD for dogs, the more at ease you will feel about giving CBD and hemp products to your pets. At the end of the day, the decision is up to you. We hope to give you as much information as we can because we understand the importance of being educated about products prior to purchasing them.

When it comes to CBD for dogs and CBD for cats, the effects are purely physiological. Your pets will not experience any alterations to their brain or processing abilities. THC, not CBD, is the natural extract of the cannabis plant that causes psychological changes in animals as well as people. We are adamantly against giving THC to pets because it is considered a mind-altering drug.

Though THC is absolutely harmless, it causes changes in perception and awareness, both of which might confuse and upset your pet. Just because CBD is beneficial to dogs and cats, it does not imply that THC is advised. In fact, THC is very dangerous for animals.

From hyperactivity and an increase in noise-making to overproduction of saliva and abnormal dilation of their pupils, dogs, and cats who have ingested anything containing THC can start to panic. In the worst-case scenario, your pet might go into overdrive and have a heart attack, seizure, or even slip into a THC-induced coma. In particular, dogs are senstive because they have more cannabinoid receptors.

CBD primarily originates from hemp plants, while THC is extracted from marijuana. In order to provide your pet with relaxation without the accompaniment of psychoactive feelings, it is important to always stick to CBD oils for pets.

CBD for pets works to eliminate many unwanted symptoms, including but not limited to…

  • Inflammation
  • Arthritis
  • Anxious tendencies
  • Separation anxiety
  • Panic attacks
  • Physical bodily pain
  • Minor and major joint pain
  • Heightened stress levels
  • Inability to fall or stay asleep
  • Seizure disorders

A few other benefits of CBD oil for pets are…

  • All-natural medicinal remedy
  • Absolutely no by-products or preservatives
  • No harm to the body in any way
  • Assists in protecting against early onset of diabetes
  • No man-made chemicals or additives
  • Lowers chance of development of cancer

CBD calms and soothes your cats and dogs. There aren’t any serious or concerning long-term effects of CBD on your pets. If anything, the only thing to be aware of is that your pet’s tolerance for CBD will increase over time.

Side Effects Of CBD

Unlike THC-heavy cannabis products that over-activate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), causing us to feel high from it, CBD products work very naturally with the endocannabinoid system. In fact, by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzymes CBD protects endocannabinoids from premature recycling.

There are a few side effects to be aware both due to the endocannabinoid system and not due to it. Minor ones like dry mouth and tiredness can occur when too much CBD is given, and this is due to the endocannabinoid system being a major play in these functions.

The one area of concern, is CBD's ability to delay the function of CYP enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing certain medications. It's not uncommon for things to inhibit these enzymes, as grapefruit and kale do the same. However, if your vet has your dog on any prescription medication for a medical disorder, please talk to them first before giving them any cannabis product. While some of the cannabinoids in the cannabis plant can cause issues by inhibiting CYP enzymes, research, along with anecdotal reports indicate that cannabis products can be used safely in conjunction with drugs broken down by CYP enzymes.

Interestingly enough, the cannabinoids in cannabis ability to inhibit the response of enzymes are good in the case of our fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzymes. There is some thought that the reason some pets and people respond so well to cannabis products like CBD is due to them having an endogenous cannabinoid deficiency. Research on this is still largely in its infancy, but it wouldn't surprise us if someday cannabis products even ones with high THC are used as an official treatment for a wide range of medical disorders. All thanks to the endocannabinoid system and the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG, along with the endogenous cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.

Where to Purchase CBD for Dogs and CBD for Cats

CBD Oil For Dogs and Cats 250mg | Innovet Pet Products

Have we convinced you that CBD is an excellent, natural ingredient for your cat and dog alike? We hope so! If we’ve managed to open your eyes to the magic of CBD for pets, you’re probably wondering what your options are and where you can buy the best CBD for your pets.

Look no further than Innovet Pet! We are a leading brand of CBD for dogs and CBD for cats. Our products range in price, style, and efficacy. From CBD oil to CBD treats, you are sure to find something for your cherished, precious pets. Our CBD treats are designed to help unlease the full extent of health benefits that both reserach and clinical stuides have shown what CBD is capble off.

All of our products are thoroughly tested in the lab to ensure quality, safety, and efficiency. We extract our hemp and CBD oils from only the best cannabis plants. With hemp oils from Germany and the United Kingdom, and hemp extracts sourced in Oregon, our products are free from unnecessary additives, unwanted preservatives, and toxic pesticides.

Our CBD oil for dogs and cats is intended to create soothing effects for your pets. CBD for pets is a natural alternative way of alleviating pain, calming anxious minds, and creating a sense of relaxation for an otherwise jittery animal. We provide a guide to help you understand the proper dosage of CBD oil for your pet in particular. Larger animals require a higher dosage to work properly, so we want to make sure you know the perfect amount of CBD oil to administer to your pet.

100% Natural Hemp Dog Treats for Anxiety | Innovet Pet Products

We also offer various sizes of CBD oil containers to accommodate the discrepancies among different breeds. CBD oils are a one-size-suits all ordeal, but since dogs and cats vary in physical size, we give you options when it comes to the volume of oil available for purchase. If you are trying CBD oil for dogs or CBD oil for cats for the first time, you can start out with the 125mg bottle. Our sizes are as large as 1,500mg which provides you with a selection of sizes for your choosing.

If you are also interested in CBD treats unique to dogs, then you’re in luck! We manufacture care packages for both small and large dogs. These bundles include CBD oil for dogs as well as dog treats made with hemp. Innovet also sells hemp-based soft chews and hemp CBD capsules for dogs. We only create CBD oils and hemp products that we believe in because your cats and dogs deserve nothing short of pet-grade top-tier treatment. With Innovet, you can be certain that your pets are receiving CBD oils made with love and care.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System

From its anti-inflammatory properties to its help with pain, CBD has a wide range of medical benefits that can help keep our dogs' ECS healthy. And by extension, the health of functions that regulate stress, pain, mood, inflammation, and on. Even CBD's ability to relieve stress alone can help with the major side effects of cancer treatments.

While the endocannabinoid system and CBD together can offer significant advantages to improve health, they are not always the end-all-be-all. They are not a replacement or alternative to cancer treatments recommended to you by your vet. However, they can greatly assist with the side effects of both cancer and the common treatments used to treat it. When it comes to anxiety, CBD is brilliant for instilling calm at the moment, but for long-term success with chronic anxiety, training is nearly essential. But again, CBD is an irreplaceable tool because training takes a while, allowing time for more anxiety episodes to arise that can be quite destructive.

CBD's ability to push health a step forward in so many directions, giving us all a better foundation for health.


Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System

CBD Oil And Arthritis In Dogs

Cannabis Oil for Dogs

Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions

Recent Posts

National Pet Parent Day
National Pet Parent Day
National Pet Day
National Pet Day
Does CBD Get You High?
Does CBD Get You High?
CBD oil for Dog Anxiety: Can it help?
CBD oil for Dog Anxiety: Can it help?
Anatomy of Dogs and Cats: the Endocannabinoid System
Anatomy of Dogs and Cats: the Endocannabinoid System
What Should I Do If My Pet Gets A Tick?
Leave a comment

Please note, comments must be approved before they are published